- To perform a systematic review that determines the percentage of published orthopedic surgery and sports medicine systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have a conclusive conclusion.
- Large administrative database, or “big data” research studies can include an immense number of patients. Strengths of research based on big data include generalizability resulting from diverse patients, diverse providers, and diverse clinical settings. Limitations of research based on large administrative databases may include indeterminate quality and obscure purpose of data entry, lack of information regarding confounding variables, and suboptimal clinical outcome measures. Thus, research conclusions based on big data must be scrutinized in a discerning and critical manner.
- A series of articles on statistics are intended for an audience of clinicians, as well as statisticians and authors. Statistical significance is different than clinical significance. Understanding of clinical outcomes, value, quality, or generalizability requires critical analysis of medical research literature to ensure that statistical analyses have been properly applied and interpreted.
- Within the health care environment, there has been a recent and appropriate trend towards emphasizing the value of care provision. Reduced cost and higher quality improve the value of care. Quality is a challenging, heterogeneous, variably defined concept. At the core of quality is the patient's outcome, quantified by a vast assortment of subjective and objective outcome measures. There has been a recent evolution towards evidence-based medicine in health care, clearly elucidating the role of high-quality evidence across groups of patients and studies.
- Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are increasingly being used in today's rapidly evolving health care environment. The value of care provision emphasizes the highest quality of care at the lowest cost. Quality is in the eye of the beholder, with different stakeholders prioritizing different components of the value equation. At the center of the discussion are the patients and their quantification of outcome via PROs. There are hundreds of different PRO questionnaires that may ascertain an individual's overall general health, quality of life, activity level, or determine a body part-, joint-, or disease-specific outcome.